The long-term linkages between direct and indirect property in Australia

Document Type

Journal Article


Emerald Group Publishing Ltd


School of Business and Law




Yong, J., Pham, A.K. (2015). The long-term linkages between direct and indirect property in Australia in Journal of Property Investment and Finance, 33(4), 374-392. Available here.


The authors study the linkages between direct and indirect Australian property sectors from 1985 to 2013, with shares and bonds. This paper employs an Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) process to de-smooth a valuationbased direct property index. The authors establish directional lead-lag relationships between markets using bi-variate Granger causality tests. Johansen cointegration tests are carried out to examine how direct and indirect property markets adjust to an equilibrium long-term relationship and short-term deviations from such a relationship with other asset classes. Findings – The authors find the use of appraisal-based property data creates a smoothing bias which masks the extent of how information is transmitted between the indirect property sector, stock and bond markets, and influences returns. The authors demonstrate that an ARFIMA process accounting for a smoothing bias up to lags of four quarters can overcome the overstatement of the smoothing bias from traditional AR models, after individually appraised constituent properties are aggregated into an overall index. The results show that direct property adjusts to information transmitted from markettraded A-REITs and stocks. Practical implications – The study shows direct property investments and A-REITs are substitutible in a multi-asset portfolio in the long and short term. Originality/value – The authors apply an ARFIMA(p, d, q) model to de-smooth Australian property returns, as proposed by Bond and Hwang (2007). The authors expect the findings will contribute to the discussion on whether direct property and REITs are substitutes in a multi-asset portfolio.



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