Document Type

Journal Article


Ivyspring International Publisher


School of Medical and Health Sciences / Systems and Intervention Research Centre for Health




Wu, L.-J., Wang, Y.-X., You, Q.-S., Duan, J.-L., Luo, Y.-X., Liu, L.-J., Li, X., Gao, Q., ... & Wang, W. (2015). Risk factors of myopic shift among primary school children in Beijing, China: A prospective study in International Journal of Medical Sciences, 12(8), 633-638. doi: 10.7150/ijms.12133. Available here.


Objective: To evaluate factors associated with myopic shift among primary school children. Methods: In a one-year prospective school-based study, 5052 children from ten schools were enrolled using a multi-stage random cluster approach. The baseline examination included non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry and questionnaire interview. Measurements were repeated at the follow-up. Results: Among 5052 students at baseline investigated, 4292 students (85.0%) returned for the follow-up examination. The mean refractive error (-1.13±1.57 diopters) had changed -0.52±0.73 diopters from the baseline to the follow-up examination. 2170 (51.0%) had a rate of significant myopic shift (significant myopic shift is defined as the change of spherical equivalent of the refraction ≤ -0.50D between the follow-up and baseline measures). We confirmed that common associated factors (older age, parental myopia, lower refractive status at baseline, shorter reading distance and lower frequency of outdoor activities during class recesses) were associated with greater shift towards myopia. After controlling for age, sex, region of habitation, parental myopia and refractive status at baseline, greater shift towards myopia was independently associated with distance from near-work (OR=1.48, 95% CI=1.26-1.74, P



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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License