Customer Empowerment to co-create service designs and delivery: Scale development and validation
Services Marketing Quarterly
Taylor & Francis
School of Business and Law
This study developed a scale to measure customer psychological empowerment. Focus group and in-depth interviews were used to generate items. Three separate studies were undertaken with different sampling methods in different service industries to refine the scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to identify and confirm the factor structure. Convergent, discriminant, nomological, and criterion validities were reported prior to testing internal and external validities. The customer psychological empowerment scale was determined to be a second-order factor model consisting of three subdimensions: service choice, information attainment, and impact. The scale generates high reliability and validities.