Document Type

Journal Article




School of Medical and Health Sciences




This article was originally published as: Golubnitschaja, O., Baban, B., Boniolo, G. et al(2016). Medicine in the early twenty-first century: Paradigm and anticipation - EPMA position paper 2016 EPMA Journal 7: 23. Original article available here


Challenges of “standardisation” and “individualisation” have always been characteristic for medical services. In terms of individualisation, the best possible individual care is the ethical imperative of medicine, and it is a good right of any patient to receive it. However, in terms of standardisation, all the available treatments are based on guideline recommendations derived from large multi-centre trials with many thousands of patients involved. In the most optimal way, the standardisation and individualisation should go hand-in-hand, in order to identify the right patient treating him/her with the right medication and the right dose at the right time point!

Further, in paradigm and anticipation, there is a big discrepancy between “disease care” and “health care” which dramatically impacts ethical and economical aspects of medical services.

Several approaches have been suggested in ancient and modern medicine to conduct medical services in a possibly optimal way. What is the difference amongst all of them and how big is the potential beyond corresponding approach to satisfy the needs of the individual, the patient, professional groups involved and society at large?

On behalf of the “European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine,” the dedicated EPMA working group provides a deep analysis in the issue followed by the expert recommendations considering the multifaceted aspects of both “disease care” and “health care” practices including ethics and economy, life quality of individuals and patients, interests of professional groups involved, benefits of subpopulations, health care system(s) and society as a whole.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.