Document Type



OPAST Online Publishing Group


School of Medical and Health Sciences




Edith Cowan University

McCusker Alzheimer’s Research Foundation

National Health and Medical Research Council


Martins, I. J. (2016). Type 3 diabetes with links to NAFLD and other chronic diseases in the western world. International Journal of Diabetes, 1(1), 1-5.


In the year 2015 it is now estimated that 30% of the Western World will now progress to non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and by the year 2050 if NAFLD remains untreated in the Western world the prevalence of the disease may rise to 40% of the global population. Type 3 diabetes and circadian rhythm disturbances may be involved in the induction of NAFLD that may promote insulin resistance and various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, pancreatic disease, kidney disease and neurodegenerative disease. Multiple risk factors that induce Type 3 diabetes and NAFLD include stress, magnesium deficiency, bacterial lipopolysaccharide contamination, drug induced toxicity, xenobiotic levels, unhealthy diet/lifestyle factors and defective thermoregulation. Early diagnosis of Type 3 diabetes by multiple assessment techniques such as proteomics, genomics and lipidomics may allow reversal or stabilization of NAFLD that may progress slowly from simple non-alcoholic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and to hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis of liver and hepatoma. Analysis of plasma constituents such as heat shock proteins (60,70, 90), amyloid beta, adiponectin, fibroblast growth factor 21, ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate, vasoactive intestinal peptide, thrombospondin 1, acute phase reactants may indicate progression of Type 3 diabetes and NAFLD and these results may not be consistent with normal plasma glucose and cholesterol levels. Early nutritional interventions with temperature regulation are required to reverse premature brain disease in diabetes (Type 3/Type2) that is connected to the rapid metabolism of heat shock proteins and amyloid beta oligomers that determine the severity of insulin resistance and NAFLD in individuals in the Western World.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

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