A comprehensive review on nutrients and organics removal from different wastewaters employing subsurface flow constructed wetlands
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology
Taylor and Francis
School of Engineering
This paper provides a comprehensive review on organics and nutrients (N and P) removals from industrial, municipal, domestic, secondary treated, and decentralized wastewaters employing subsurface flow wetlands. The review indicates that novel operational strategies, structural modification, and internal carbon generation enhanced nitrogen and organics removals across such reviewed systems. Phosphorus removals were critically dependent on specific P-adsorbing materials. The review further illustrates that subsurface flow wetlands could meet reuse standards in decentralized clusters. Reasons and remedies of major operational problems (media clogging and seasonal variations) have also been analyzed. Different operational strategies have been identified to achieve higher removal rates.