Author Identifier

Amanda Devine Orcid: Jonathan Hodgson Orcid: Catherine Bondonno Orcid:

Document Type

Journal Article


Wiley-VCH Verlag


School of Medical and Health Sciences



Grant Number

NHMRC Number: 1066048


This is the peer reviewed version of the following article:
Blekkenhorst, L. C., Prince, R. L., Ward, N. C., Croft, K. D., Lewis, J. R., Devine, A., ... & Bondonno, C. P. (2017). Development of a reference database for assessing dietary nitrate in vegetables. Molecular nutrition & food research, 61(8), which has been published in final form at
This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.

Article can be found here.



Nitrate from vegetables improves vascular health with short-term intake. Whether this translates into improved long-term health outcomes has yet to be investigated. To enable reliable analysis of nitrate intake from food records, there is a strong need for a comprehensive nitrate content of vegetables database.

Methods and results

A systematic literature search (1980–2016) was performed using Medline, Agricola and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux abstracts databases. The nitrate content of vegetables database contains 4237 records from 255 publications with data on 178 vegetables and 22 herbs and spices. The nitrate content of individual vegetables ranged from Chinese flat cabbage (median; range: 4240; 3004–6310 mg/kg FW) to corn (median; range: 12; 5–1091 mg/kg FW). The database was applied to estimate vegetable nitrate intake using 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Significant correlations were observed between urinary nitrate excretion and 24-HDR (r = 0.4, P = 0.013), between 24-HDR and 12 month FFQs (r = 0.5, P < 0.001) as well as two 4 week FFQs administered 8 weeks apart (r = 0.86, P < 0.001).


This comprehensive nitrate database allows quantification of dietary nitrate from a large variety of vegetables. It can be applied to dietary records to explore the associations between nitrate intake and health outcomes in human studies.