Document Type

Journal Article


Cambridge University Press


Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science


School of Exercise and Health Sciences




This article has been published in a revised form in British Journal of Nutrition: Nicholl A., Du Heaume M., Mori T.A., Beilin L.J., Oddy W.H., Bremner A.P., O'Sullivan T.A. (2014). Higher breakfast glycaemic load is associated with increased metabolic syndrome risk, including lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations and increased TAG concentrations, in adolescent girls. British Journal of Nutrition, 112(12), 1974-1983. Available here This version is free to view and download for private research and study only. Not for re-distribution, re-sale or use in derivative works. © British Journal of Nutrition.


Almost all previous studies examining the associations between glycaemic load (GL) and metabolic syndrome risk have used a daily GL value. The daily value does not distinguish between peaks of GL intake over the day, which may be more closely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations between daily and mealtime measures of GL and metabolic syndrome risk, including metabolic syndrome components, in adolescents. Adolescents participating in the 14-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study completed 3 d food records and metabolic assessments. Breakfast GL, lunch GL, dinner GL and a score representing meal GL peaks over the day were determined in 516 adolescents. Logistic regression models were used to investigate whether GL variables were independent predictors of the metabolic syndrome in this population-based cohort (3·5 % prevalence of the metabolic syndrome). Breakfast GL was found to be predictive of the metabolic syndrome in girls (OR 1·15, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·27; P



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