Document Type

Journal Article


Cogent OA

Place of Publication

United States


School of Arts and Humanities / School of Education




Harms, C., Pooley, J. A., & Cohen, L. (2017). The protective factors for resilience scale (PFRS): Development of the scale. Cogent Psychology, 4(1), 1400415.


The present paper outlines the development of the Protective Factors for Resilience Scale (PFRS). To address limitations in the literature related to measuring psychological resilience this paper outlines a two stage process in developing the PFRS. After an initial exploratory factor analysis (Stage 1: N = 413 adults), the result of confirmatory factor analysis (Stage 2: N = 240 adults) supported the proposed model where a single second-order factor explained the degree of association between three lower order factors (Personal Resources, Social Resources Family and Social Resources Peers, each indicated by 5 items per factor). Other evidence of the construct validity for the PFRS was observed in stage 2 as the expected associations between the PFRS and measures of self-esteem, coping styles (except for problem-focused coping) and life satisfaction were observed. Although future testing of the PFRS with other populations is needed, the results of the present study provide initial evidence to support the view that the PFRS is a psychometrically sound, brief and broad measure of three protective factors associated with resilience.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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