Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Journal of Hazardous Materials


Elsevier BV


School of Engineering




Sookhak Lari, K., Johnston, C. D., Rayner, J. L., & Davis, G. B. (2018). Field-scale multi-phase LNAPL remediation: Validating a new computational framework against sequential field pilot trials. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 345, 87-96. Available here


Remediation of subsurface systems, including groundwater, soil and soil gas, contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) is challenging. Field-scale pilot trials of multi-phase remediation were undertaken at a site to determine the effectiveness of recovery options. Sequential LNAPL skimming and vacuum-enhanced skimming, with and without water table drawdown were trialled over 78 days; in total extracting over 5 m3 of LNAPL. For the first time, a multi-component simulation framework (including the multi-phase multi-component code TMVOC-MP and processing codes) was developed and applied to simulate the broad range of multi-phase remediation and recovery methods used in the field trials. This framework was validated against the sequential pilot trials by comparing predicted and measured LNAPL mass removal rates and compositional changes. The framework was tested on both a Cray supercomputer and a cluster. Simulations mimicked trends in LNAPL recovery rates (from 0.14 to 3 mL/s) across all remediation techniques each operating over periods of 4–14 days over the 78 day trial. The code also approximated order of magnitude compositional changes of hazardous chemical concentrations in extracted gas during vacuum-enhanced recovery. The verified framework enables longer term prediction of the effectiveness of remediation approaches allowing better determination of remediation endpoints and long-term risks.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.