Inertial particle focusing dynamics in a trapezoidal straight microchannel: application to particle filtration
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics
School of Medical and Health Sciences
Inertial microfluidics has emerged recently as a promising tool for high-throughput manipulation of particles and cells for a wide range of flow cytometric tasks including cell separation/filtration, cell counting, and mechanical phenotyping. Inertial focusing is profoundly reliant on the cross-sectional shape of channel and its impacts on not only the shear field but also the wall-effect lift force near the wall region. In this study, particle focusing dynamics inside trapezoidal straight microchannels was first studied systematically for a broad range of channel Re number (20 < Re < 800). The altered axial velocity profile and consequently new shear force arrangement led to a cross-lateral movement of equilibration toward the longer side wall when the rectangular straight channel was changed to a trapezoid; however, the lateral focusing started to move backward toward the middle and the shorter side wall, depending on particle clogging ratio, channel aspect ratio, and slope of slanted wall, as the channel Reynolds number further increased (Re > 50). Remarkably, an almost complete transition of major focusing from the longer side wall to the shorter side wall was found for large-sized particles of clogging ratio K ~ 0.9 (K = a/Hmin) when Re increased noticeably to ~ 650. Finally, based on our findings, a trapezoidal straight channel along with a bifurcation was designed and applied for continuous filtration of a broad range of particle size (0.3 < K < 1) exiting through the longer wall outlet with ~ 99% efficiency (Re < 100).