Cruciferous and total vegetable intakes are inversely associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in older adult women
Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Catherine P. Bondonno, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Joshua R. Lewis, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Richard J. Woodman
Amanda Devine, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Nicola P. Bondonno
Wai H. Lim
Lawrence J. Beilin
Peter L. Thompson
Richard L. Prince
Jonathan M. Hodgson, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
American Heart Association Inc.
School of Medical and Health Sciences
Background Dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables are considered to reduce atherosclerotic disease presentation and are reported to be inversely associated with subclinical measures of atherosclerosis, such as carotid artery intima‐media thickness (IMT) and plaque. However, the effect of vegetable intake alone, and relationships to specific types of vegetables containing different phytochemical profiles, is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of total vegetable intake and specific vegetables grouped according to phytochemical constituents with common carotid artery IMT (CCA‐IMT) and carotid plaque severity in a cohort of older adult women (aged ≥70 years).
Methods and Results Total vegetable intake was calculated at baseline (1998) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vegetable types included cruciferous, allium, yellow/orange/red, leafy green, and legumes. In 2001, CCA‐IMT (n=954) and carotid focal plaque (n=968) were assessed using high‐resolution B‐mode carotid ultrasonography. Mean (SD) total vegetable intake was 199.9 (78.0) g/d. Women consuming ≥3 servings of vegetables each day had ≈4.6% to 5.0% lower mean CCA‐IMT (P=0.014) and maximum CCA‐IMT (P=0.004) compared with participants consuming <2 servings of vegetables. For each 10 g/d higher in cruciferous vegetable intake, there was an associated 0.006 mm (0.8%) lower mean CCA‐IMT (P<0.01) and 0.007 mm (0.8%) lower maximum CCA‐IMT (P<0.01). Other vegetable types were not associated with CCA‐IMT (P>0.05). No associations were observed between vegetables and plaque severity (P>0.05).
Conclusions Increasing vegetables in the diet with a focus on consuming cruciferous vegetables may have benefits for the prevention of subclinical atherosclerosis in older adult women.