The effects of alcohol on plasma lipid mediators of inflammation resolution in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Place of Publication
School of Medical & Health Sciences
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation. Inflammation resolution is recognised as an important process driven by specialised pro-resolving mediators of inflammation (SPMs) and has the potential to moderate chronic inflammation. Alcohol has the potential to affect synthesis of SPMs by altering key enzymes involved in SPM synthesis and may influence ongoing inflammation associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
(i) To examine the effects of alcohol consumed as red wine on plasma SPM in men and women with Type 2 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial and (ii) compare baseline plasma SPM levels in the same patients with those of healthy volunteers.
Twenty-four patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized to a three-period crossover study with men drinking red wine 300 ml/day (∼31 g alcohol/day) and women drinking red wine 230 ml/day (∼24 g alcohol/day), or equivalent volumes of dealcoholized red wine (DRW) or water, each for 4 weeks. The SPM 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE), E-series resolvins (Rv) (RvE1-RvE3), 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), and D-series resolvins (RvD1, 17R-RvD1, RvD2, RvD5), 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA) and Maresin 1 were measured at the end of each period. A baseline comparison of plasma SPM, hs CRP, lipids and glucose was made with healthy volunteers.
Red wine did not differentially affect any of the SPM measured when compared with DRW or water. Baseline levels of the hs-CRP and the SPM 18-HEPE, 17-HDHA, RvD1 and 17R-RvD1 in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were all significantly elevated compared with healthy controls and remained so after adjusting for age and gender.
Moderate alcohol consumption as red wine does not alter plasma SPM in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The elevation of SPM levels compared with healthy volunteers may be a homeostatic response to counter ongoing inflammation.