Document Type

Conference Proceeding


Australian Council of University Art and Design Schools

Place of Publication



School of Arts and Humanities




Pekaar, S., & Haddad, H. (September 2017). Valuing users of Needle Syringe Exchange programs: Design approaches within the healthcare sector. In ACUADS 2017 Conference: Australian National University School of Art & Design, Canberra, pp. 12.


Injecting drug users are among the most marginalised and stigmatised groups in society. This is a wicked problem exacerbated by multifaceted assumptions, misconceptions, and stereotypes surrounding injecting drug users. Stigmatisation results in injecting drug users being frequently denied basic human rights and subjected to severe social isolation (AIVL, 2003). Human-centered research approaches are particularly pertinent when conducting research in healthcare. The application of design approaches to define and address the perceived issues can result in more empathic and relevant designed outcomes (see Clarkson et al., 2010; Lamb, Zimring, Chuzi, & Dutcher, 2010; Loscin & Nagji, 2009; Razzouk & Shutre, 2012; Santos et al., 2014; Shraiky, 2010).

This paper discusses a design project that seeks to explore the value of empathic co-creation methods to reframe complex perceptions surrounding the use of Needle and Syringe Programs (NSPs) and Needle and Syringe Exchange Programs (NSEPs). Co-funded by the Public Health Division within the WA Department of Health, this project is a collaborative initiative, guided by a steering committee representing three NSP/NSEP service provider organisations. It seeks to investigate the impact stigmatisation and other access barriers have on the utilisation of Needle and Syringe related services, and how these barriers are perceived and defined by the experiences of injecting drug users that are clients to these services.

The paper reports on data collection methods that were developed to respect and value participants’ input, empowering them through the acknowledgment of their voices. Bottom-up methods that could be used synchronously and asynchronously maximised the opportunities for injecting drug users to express their point of view. This paper proposes that the value of empathic design methods in complex healthcare challenges is to preserve the interest of the intended end-user. The process of co-creating with the end-user is as important as the design outcome itself.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Australia License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Australia License.