Phylogenetic relationships of the Australasian open-holed trapdoor spiders (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Nemesiidae: Anaminae): multi-locus molecular analyses resolve the generic classification of a highly diverse fauna
Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Place of Publication
School of Science
Spiders of the nemesiid mygalomorph subfamily Anaminae are common in the Australasian region from rainforests to deserts. Using specimens from all 12 named genera, we evaluated anamine phylogeny and classification using a multi-locus molecular dataset. We combined newly obtained 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and elongation factor 1 gamma (EF-1γ) sequences with an existing published dataset and further analysed an expanded mitochondrial (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, COI) and nuclear (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, Histone H3, EF-1γ) dataset. The resulting trees showed that most Australasian Anaminae formed a monophyletic group congruent with the tribe Anamini, but that the genus Stanwellia grouped with non-Australian exemplars. Molecular divergence dating revealed that the major Australian radiation of Anamini occurred during the Miocene, with multiple independent incursions from temperate habitats into the arid zone. New Zealand Stanwellia nested within a clade including otherwise Australian taxa, with divergence estimates for the entire genus between 8 and 38 Mya, suggesting that their presence in New Zealand is the result of transoceanic dispersal, rather than continental vicariance. The molecular phylogenies were reconciled with morphological data and used to stabilize the generic classification by recognizing Stanwellia, plus nine genera of Anamini, all of which are newly diagnosed.