Relationship of dietary nitrate intake from vegetables with cardiovascular disease mortality: a prospective study in a cohort of older Australians
Alex H. Liu
Catherine P. Bondonno, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Victoria M. Flood
Joshua R. Lewis, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Kevin D. Croft
Richard J. Woodman
Wai H. Lim
Jonathan M. Hodgson, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
European Journal of Nutrition
School of Medical and Health Sciences
Short-term trials indicate inorganic nitrate and nitrate-rich vegetables may have vascular health benefits. However, few observational studies have explored the relationship between nitrate intake and long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the association of nitrate intake from vegetables with CVD mortality in a sample of older Australians.
A subgroup of participants without diabetes or major CVD at baseline (1992–1994) were included from the Blue Mountains Eye Study, a population-based cohort study of men and women aged ≥ 49 years. Diets were evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline, 5 years and 10 years of follow-up. Vegetable nitrate intake was estimated using a comprehensive vegetable nitrate database. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to explore the association between vegetable nitrate intake and CVD mortality.
During 14 years of follow-up, 188/2229 (8.4%) participants died from CVD. In multivariable-adjusted analysis, participants in quartile 2 [69.5–99.6 mg/day; HR 0.53 (95% CI 0.35, 0.82)], quartile 3 [99.7–137.8 mg/day; HR 0.51 (95% CI 0.32, 0.80)], and quartile 4 [> 137.8 mg/day; HR 0.63 (95% CI 0.41, 0.95)] of vegetable nitrate intake had lower hazards for CVD mortality compared to participants in quartile 1 (< 69.5 mg/day).
In older Australian men and women, vegetable nitrate intake was inversely associated with CVD mortality, independent of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors. These findings confirm a recent report that intake of vegetable nitrate lowers the risk of CVD mortality in older women and extend these findings to older men.