Joint simulation of compositional and categorical data via direct sampling technique – Application to improve mineral resource confidence

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Computers & Geosciences


Elsevier Ltd.


School of Science




Originally published as:

Talebi, H., Mueller, U., & Tolosana-Delgado, R. (2019). Joint simulation of compositional and categorical data via direct sampling technique–Application to improve mineral resource confidence. Computers & Geosciences, 122, 87-102.

Original article available here.


Ore deposits usually consist of ore materials with different discrete (e.g. rock and alteration types) and continuous (e.g. geochemical and mineral composition) features. Financial feasibility studies are highly dependent on the modelling of these features and their associated joint uncertainties. Few geostatistical techniques have been developed for the joint modelling of high-dimensional mixed data (continuous and categorical) or constrained data, such as compositional data. The compositional nature of the mineral and geochemical data induces several challenges for multivariate geostatistical techniques, because such data carry relative information and are known for spurious statistical and spatial correlation effects. This paper investigates the application of the direct sampling algorithm for joint modelling of compositional and categorical data. In some mining projects the amount of available data may be enormous in some parts of the deposit and if the density of measurements is sufficient, multivariate geospatial patterns can be derived from that data and be simulated (without model inference) at other undersampled areas of the deposit with similar characteristics. In this context, the direct sampling multiple-point simulation method can be implemented for this reconstruction process. The compositional nature of the data is addressed via implementing an isometric log-ratio transformation. The approach is illustrated through two case studies, one synthetic and one real. The accuracy of the results is checked against a set of validation data, revealing the potential of the proposed methodology for joint modelling of compositional and categorical information. The direct sampling technique can be considered as a smart move to assess the future risk and uncertainty of a resource by making use of all the information hidden within the early data.



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