Influence of pressure and temperature on co2-nanofluid interfacial tension: implication for enhanced oil recovery and carbon geosequestration
Society of Petroleum Engineers
School of Engineering
Nanoparticles (NPs) based techniques have shown great promises in all fields of science and industry. Nanofluid-flooding, as a replacement for water-flooding, has been suggested as an applicable application for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The subsequent presence of these NPs and its potential aggregations in the porous media; however, can dramatically intensify the complexity of subsequent CO2 storage projects in the depleted hydrocarbon reservoir. Typically, CO2 from major emitters is injected into the low-productivity oil reservoir for storage and incremental oil recovery, as the last EOR stage. In this work, An extensive serious of experiments have been conducted using a high-pressure temperature vessel to apply a wide range of CO2-pressure (0.1 to 20 MPa), temperature (23 to 70 °C), and salinity (0 to 20wt% NaCl) during CO2/water interfacial tension (IFT) measurements. Moreover, to mimic all potential scenarios several nanofluids at different and NPs load were used. IFT of CO2/nanofluid system was measured using the pendant drop method as it is convenient and flexible technique, particularly at the high-pressure and high-temperature condition. Experimentally, a nanofluid droplet is allowed to hang from one end of a dispensing needle with the presence of CO2 at the desired pressure and temperature. Regardless of the effects of CO2-pressure, temperature, and salt concentration on the IFT of the CO2/nanofluid system, NPs have shown a limited effect on IFT reduction. Remarkably, increased NPs concentration (from 0.01 to 0.05 wt%) can noticeably reduce IFT of the CO2-nanofluid system. However, no further reduction in IFT values was noticed when the NPs load was ≥ 0.05 wt%. Salinity, on the other hand, showed a dramatic impact on IFT and also on the ability of NPs to reduce IFT. Results showed that IFT increases with salinity particularly at relatively low pressures (≤ 5 MPa). Moreover, increased salinity can eliminate the effect of NPs on IFT. Interestingly, the initial NP size has no influence on the ability of NPs to reduce IFT. Consequently, the potential nanofluid-flooding processes during EOR have no negative effect on the later CO2-geosequestration projects.