Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title



Public Library of Science


School of Medical and Health Sciences/ Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research




Originally published as: Choo, H. C., Peiffer, J. J., Lopes-Silva, J. P., Mesquita, R. N. O., Amano, T., Kondo, N., & Abbiss, C. R. (2019). Effect of ice slushy ingestion and cold water immersion on thermoregulatory behavior. PLoS ONE, 14(2). Original article available here


Two studies were conducted to examine the effects of ice slushy ingestion (ICE) and cold water immersion (CWI) on thermoregulatory and sweat responses during constant (study 1) and self-paced (study 2) exercise. In study 1, 11 men cycled at 40–50% of peak aerobic power for 60 min (33.2 ± 0.3C, 45.9 ± 0.5% relative humidity, RH). In study 2, 11 men cycled for 60 min at perceived exertion (RPE) equivalent to 15 (33.9 ± 0.2C and 42.5 ± 3.9%RH). In both studies, each trial was preceded by 30 min of CWI (~22C), ICE or no cooling (CON). Rectal temperature (T re ), skin temperature (T sk ), thermal sensation, and sweat responses were measured. In study 1, ICE decreased T re- T sk gradient versus CON (p = 0.005) during first 5 min of exercise, while CWI increased T re- T sk gradient versus CON and ICE for up to 20 min during the exercise (p0.05). Increased T re -T sk gradient by CWI improved MPO while ICE reduced T re but did not confer any ergogenic effect. Both precooling treatments attenuated the thermal efferent signals until a specific body temperature threshold was reached. © 2019 Choo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.