Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research



PubMed ID



Lippincott Williams and Wilkins


School of Medical and Health Sciences / School of Engineering / Center for Exercise and Sports Science Research / Exercise Medicine Research Institute




Balloch, A. S., Meghji, M., Newton, R. U., Hart, N. H., Weber, J. A., Ahmad, I. F. T. E. K. H. A. R., & Habibi, D. (2019). Assessment of a Novel Algorithm to Determine Change-of-Direction Angles While Running Using Inertial Sensors. Journal of strength and conditioning research. 34(1) 134 - 144. Available here


Balloch, AS, Meghji, M, Newton, RU, Hart, NH, Weber, JA, Ahmad, I, and Habibi, D. Assessment of a novel algorithm to determine change-of-direction angles while running using inertial sensors. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The ability to detect and quantify change-of-direction (COD) movement may offer a unique approach to load-monitoring practice. Validity and reliability of a novel algorithm to calculate COD angles for predetermined COD movements ranging from 45 to 180° in left and right directions was assessed. Five recreationally active men (age: 29.0 ± 0.5 years; height: 181.0 ± 5.6 cm; and body mass: 79.4 ± 5.3 kg) ran 5 consecutive predetermined COD trials each, at 4 different angles (45, 90, 135, and 180°), in each direction. Participants were fitted with a commercially available microtechnology unit where inertial sensor data were extracted and processed using a novel algorithm designed to calculate precise COD angles for direct comparison with a high-speed video (remotely piloted, position-locked aircraft) criterion measure. Validity was assessed using Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement and mean bias. Reliability was assessed using typical error (expressed as a coefficient of variation [CV]). Concurrent validity was present for most angles. Left: (45° = 43.8 ± 2.0°; 90° = 88.1 ± 2.0°; 135° = 136.3 ± 2.1°; and 180° = 181.8 ± 2.5°) and Right: (45° = 46.3 ± 1.6°; 90° = 91.9 ± 2.2°; 135° = 133.4 ± 2.0°; 180° = 179.2 ± 5.9°). All angles displayed excellent reliability (CV < 5%) while greater mean bias (3.6 ± 5.1°, p < 0.001), weaker limits of agreement, and reduced precision were evident for 180° trials when compared with all other angles. High-level accuracy and reliability when detecting COD angles further advocates the use of inertial sensors to quantify sports-specific movement patterns.



Available for download on Thursday, February 18, 2021