Failure modes and tensile strength of screw anchors in non-cracked concrete

Document Type



Elsevier Ltd


School of Engineering




Originally published as: Mohyeddin, A., Gad, E. F., & Lee, J. (2019). Failure modes and tensile strength of screw anchors in non-cracked concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 221, 501-513. Original publication available here


Screw anchors are widely used in applications such as fastening base plates in steel and metal construction, formwork and bracing, structural steel applications, railings and handrails. At present, researchers and design engineers rely on the Concrete Capacity Design (CCD) method to predict the strength of screw anchors under the tensile loading as the only method available in literature. In CCD method, the underlying assumption is that the concrete cone and combined concrete cone and pull-out failure modes are the main failure mode for anchors, whereas, previous studies have demonstrated that pull-out is also a very common failure mode of screw anchors. In this paper, experimental results of more than 180 tests on one particular type of screw anchors are studied to better understand their behaviour under tensile loading. Experimental results are classified based on the observed failure modes. New equations are proposed to predict the tensile capacity of this particular type of screw anchors associated with each of the above mentioned dominant failure modes for the first time. The experimental results are compared with the predicted values by the CCD method and specifications provided by the anchor manufacturer. It is also shown that in majority of cases, the CCD method overestimates both the experimental results and the specifications given by the manufacturer.