An improved mathematical model for a pumped hydro storage system considering electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic losses
School of Engineering
This paper proposes a comprehensive pumped hydro storage model with applications in microgrids and smart grids. Existing models within current literature produce high error in calculating stored energy since some critical parameters are ignored. Thus, they are not suitable choices for energy management applications. Accordingly, the main objective of this study is to provide a more realistic model by estimating all the essential parameters in the system. First, all the losses due to the pump, pipes, and fittings are modelled. Next, a water balance approach is used to calculate the volume of water in the upper reservoir considering inflow, outflow, precipitation, and evaporation. Finally, the turbine power is calculated as a function of the water level in the reservoirs, considering the hydraulic losses of the turbine, pipes and fittings. The proposed model is validated using the experimental results of a physical system. The accuracy of the model is compared with other established models. The results demonstrate that the proposed model decreases the error of the estimated stored energy from 13.17% to 0.74%. Moreover, this study shows the capability of the model to simulate different configurations. The model provided in this paper assists researchers in the field and is of benefit to engineers in designing, sizing, and managing pumped hydro storage systems.