Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Environmental Modelling & Software


Elsevier Ltd


School of Science


© 2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license

Originally published as: Hamilton, S. H., Fu, B., Guillaume, J. H., Badham, J., Elsawah, S., Gober, P., ... & Curtis, A. (2019). A framework for characterising and evaluating the effectiveness of environmental modelling. Environmental Modelling & Software, 118(August), 83-98. Original article available here.


Environmental modelling is transitioning from the traditional paradigm that focuses on the model and its quantitative performance to a more holistic paradigm that recognises successful model-based outcomes are closely tied to undertaking modelling as a social process, not just as a technical procedure. This paper redefines evaluation as a multi-dimensional and multi-perspective concept, and proposes a more complete framework for identifying and measuring the effectiveness of modelling that serves the new paradigm. Under this framework, evaluation considers a broader set of success criteria, and emphasises the importance of contextual factors in determining the relevance and outcome of the criteria. These evaluation criteria are grouped into eight categories: project efficiency, model accessibility, credibility, saliency, legitimacy, satisfaction, application, and impact. Evaluation should be part of an iterative and adaptive process that attempts to improve model-based outcomes and foster pathways to better futures.



Available for download on Thursday, April 29, 2021