Title

Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin production in raw, Holder-pasteurized, and ultraviolet-C-treated donated human milk

Document Type

Journal Article

PubMed ID

30817174

Publisher

Mary Ann Liebert

School

School of Medical and Health Sciences

RAS ID

28561

Funders

Funding information available at https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2018.0217

Comments

Originally published as: Almutawif, Y., Hartmann, B., Lloyd, M., Lai, C. T., Rea, A., & Geddes, D. (2019). Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin production in raw, Holder-Pasteurized, and ultraviolet-C-treated donated human milk. Breastfeeding Medicine, 14(4), 262-270. Original publication available here

Abstract

Background: Some strains of Staphylococcus aureus can produce heat-stable enterotoxins that have been associated with gastritis and potentially necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants.

Objectives/Hypothesis: To assess the impact of different storage temperatures on S. aureus growth and enterotoxin production in raw, Holder-pasteurized (HP) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C)-treated donated human milk (DHM).

Materials and Methods: The milk samples from individual donors were pooled and divided into four equal portions. One portion was HP, the second was UV-C treated, the third was not treated, and the fourth was UV-C treated after being spiked with S. aureus. All samples were incubated at 37°C (18 hours) and 4°C (14 days). Bacterial colony count, enterotoxin A and B, and immune proteins were quantified.

Results: At 37°C, the colony count increased in HP DHM and decreased in raw and UV-C-treated DHM. At 4°C, colony counts in HP DHM reduced and were not detected in raw and UV-C-treated DHM from day 8 of incubation. No bacteria were detected in samples that were inoculated before UV-C treatment. Enterotoxin A was only detected in HP-DHM at 37°C from the 9th hour onward. Enterotoxin B was detected in one sample at the 15th hour. Immune protein concentrations were similar in raw and UV-C DHM, and were reduced in the HP DHM.

Conclusion: UV-C-treated milk reduces S. aureus growth with similar kinetics to raw milk making it a promising emerging technique to eliminate bacteria while retaining essential immune proteins in DHM.

DOI

10.1089/bfm.2018.0217

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