Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Frontiers in Psychology


Frontiers Media S.A.


Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research / School of Medical and Health Sciences




Croft, J. L., Schroeder, R. T., & Bertram, J. E. (2019). The landscape of movement control in locomotion: Cost, strategy, and solution. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article 716. Available here


Features of gait are determined at multiple levels, from the selection of the gait itself (e.g., walk or run) through the specific parameters utilized (stride length, frequency, etc.) to the pattern of muscular excitation. The ultimate choices are determined neurally, but what is involved with deciding on the appropriate strategy? Human locomotion appears stereotyped not so much because the pattern is predetermined, but because these movement patterns are good solutions for providing movement utilizing the machinery available to the individual (the legs and their requisite components). Under different circumstances the appropriate solution may differ broadly (different gait) or subtly (different parameters). Interpretation of the neural decision making process would benefit from understanding the influences that are utilized in the selection of the appropriate solution in any set of circumstances, including normal conditions. In this review we survey an array of studies that point to energetic cost as a key input to the gait coordination system, and not just an outcome of the gait pattern implemented. We then use that information to rigorously define the construct proposed by Sparrow and Newell (1998) where the effects of environment, organism, and task act as constraints determining the solution set available, and the coordination pattern is then implemented under pressure for energetic economy. The fit between the environment and the organism define affordances that can be actualized. We rely on a novel conceptualization of task that recognizes that the task goal needs to be separated from the mechanisms that achieve it so that the selection of a particular implementation strategy can be exposed and understood. This reformulation of the Sparrow and Newell construct is then linked to the proposed pressure for economy by considering it as an optimization problem, where the most readily selected gait strategy will be the one that achieves the task goal at (or near) the energetic minimum.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.