Ultrahigh-performance TiNi shape memory alloy by 4D printing

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Materials Science and Engineering: A




School of Engineering




Funding information available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2019.138166


Lu, H. Z., Yang, C., Luo, X., Ma, H. W., Song, B., Li, Y. Y., & Zhang, L.-C. (2019). Ultrahigh-performance TiNi shape memory alloy by 4D printing. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 763, Article 138166. Available here


For additively manufactured components, it's widely accepted to have high enough energy input to facilitate nearly full density and low enough energy input to avoid cracking tendency. In this work, ultrahigh-performance Ti50.6Ni49.4 (at.%) shape memory alloy (SMA) was manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) under high enough energy inputs (155–292 J/mm3). The microstructure, phase transformation behaviors, mechanical and shape memory properties of the SLM-manufactured SMA were investigated by various characterization methods of X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, differential scanning calorimetry, room temperature and stress-controlled cyclic tensile tests, etc. Results show that the martensite content and the austenite and martensitic transformation temperatures decrease with the decrease of laser energy input (the increase of laser scanning speed). Interestingly, the SLM-manufactured SMA exhibits ultrahigh tensile strength of 776 MPa and elongation of 7.2% under room-temperature tensile condition. In addition, stress-controlled cyclic tensile tests under 400 MPa indicate that the SLM-manufactured SMA has ultrahigh shape memory effect of 98.7% recovery ratio and 4.99% recoverable strain after ten times loading-unloading cycle. The ultrahigh mechanical and shape memory properties are associated to the combined effects of dispersedly distributed nano-sized Ti2Ni precipitates, ultrafine grains and profuse dislocations in the SLM-manufactured SMA. This work substantiates, for the first time, high enough energy input in SLM can be applied to manufacture ultrahigh-performance TiNi SMAs.