Kinematic and kinetic differences in block and split-stance standing starts during 30 m sprint-running

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

European Journal of Sport Science




School of Medical and Health Sciences




Macadam, P., Nuell, S., Cronin, J. B., Nagahara, R., Uthoff, A. M., Graham, S. P., ... & Neville, J. (2019). Kinematic and kinetic differences in block and split-stance standing starts during 30 m sprint-running. European Journal of Sport Science, 19(8), 1024-1031. Available here


This study aimed to understand the kinematic and kinetic differences between two sprint starts: block and split-stance standing. Fourteen sub-elite male sprinters (100 m time: 11.40 ± 0.39 s) performed block and split-stance standing starts sprints over 30 m of in-ground force platforms in a randomised order. Independent t-tests and repeated measures mixed model analysis of variance were used to analyse the between-condition variables across conditions, and over four step phases. Block start sprints resulted in significantly (p < .05) faster 5 m (5.0%, effect size [ES] = 0.89) and 10 m (3.5%, ES = 0.82) times, but no significant differences were found at 20 and 30 m. No significant differences were found in any kinematic measure between starting positions. However, block starts resulted in significantly (p < .001) greater propulsive impulses (6.8%, ES = 1.35) and net anterior-posterior impulses (6.5%, ES = 1.12) during steps 1–4, compared to the standing start. Block starts enable athletes to produce a greater amount of net anterior-posterior impulse during early accelerated sprinting, resulting in faster times up to 10 m. When seeking to improve initial acceleration performance, practitioners may wish to train athletes from a block start to improve horizontal force production.



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