Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Title

Energy Procedia




School of Engineering




Al-Khdheeawi, E. A., Vialle, S., Barifcani, A., Sarmadivaleh, M., & Iglauer, S. (2018). The effect of WACO2 ratio on CO2 geo-sequestration efficiency in homogeneous reservoirs. Energy Procedia, 154, 100-105. Available here


Various factors such as reservoir temperature, wettability, caprock properties, vertical to horizontal permeability ratio, salinity, reservoir heterogeneity, injection well configuration affect the CO2 geo-sequestration efficiency. Furthermore, it was previously investigated that CO2 storage efficiency can be improved by using water alternating CO2 (WACO2) technology. However, the effect of the WACO2 ratio (the ratio of the total amount of injected CO2 to the total amount of injected water) on CO2 storage efficiency has not been addressed adequately. Thus, in this paper, a 3D homogeneous reservoir simulation model has been developed to study the impact of the WACO2 ratio on CO2 mobility and CO2 trapping capacity using five different WACO2 ratios (i.e. 3, 2, 1, 1/2, and 1/3). For all WACO2 ratios tested, 9000 kton (kt) of CO2 were injected during 3 CO2 injection cycles (2 years each) and at an injection rate of 1500 kt per year. Each CO2 injection cycle was followed by a 2 years water injection cycle with injection rates of 500 kt/year, 750 kt/year, 1500 kt/year, 3000 kt/year, and 4500 kt/year for the 3, 2, 1, 1/2, and 1/3 WACO2 ratios, respectively. Then, this 12 years WACO2 injection period was followed by a 100 years post-injection period. Our results clearly indicate, after 100 years post-injection period, that the WACO2 ratio has an important effect on the CO2 migration distance, CO2 mobility and CO2 trapping capacity. The results demonstrate that lower WACO2 ratio leads to reduce the vertical CO2 plume migration and CO2 mobility. Furthermore, low WACO2 ratio enhances the capacities of capillary and solubility trapping mechanisms. Thus, we conclude that WACO2 has a significant impact on the geo-sequestration efficiency and less WACO2 ratios are preferable

Additional Information

Paper presented at the Applied Energy Symposium and Forum, Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage, CCUS 2018, 27–29 June 2018, Perth, Australia.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Included in

Engineering Commons