A new Frontier in war: Cyber Warfare in Estonia

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Title

Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security ICCWS 2015


Academic Conferences and Publishing International


School of Science / ECU Security Research Institute




Armistead, T., & Armistead, L. (2015). A new frontier in war: Cyber Warfare in Estonia. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security: ICCWS2015 (pp. 10-13). Academic Conferences Limited. Available here


The last three decades have seen the explosion of a new technology unparalleled by any other in history with the rise of cyber capabilities. The mainstreaming of the computer and the advent of the Internet has drastically changed virtually all facets of today’s society, including warfare. The undeniable advantages of utilising this new technology has driven a number of countries, corporations, groups and individuals, to adopt and embrace these modern innovations, but has also opened the door to new types of attacks. One of the most dramatic recent examples of this rapid development has occurred in Estonia, which is one of Europe’s most wired nations” (Ashmore 2009). In 2007, Estonia fell victim to one of the world’s first major cyber-attacks, where their government was forced to address several unforeseen shortcomings in both their technological and legal systems. From this attack, Estonia not only survived but eventually became a world leader in cyber defense. As a result, these attacks have become a case study to shape the progression of cyber propagation, as well as to educate the greater international community about the importance of cyber warfare and its potential ramifications.

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