Nozzle exit conditions and the heat transfer in non-swirling and weakly swirling turbulent impinging jets

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Heat and Mass Transfer




School of Engineering




Ikhlaq, M., Al-Abdeli, Y. M., & Khiadani, M. (2020). Nozzle exit conditions and the heat transfer in non-swirling and weakly swirling turbulent impinging jets. Heat and Mass Transfer, 56(1), 269-290. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00231-019-02710-1


Investigations have been conducted into turbulent impinging jets but the exact flow dynamics and mechanisms leading to the observed heat transfer distributions at the impingement plane remain outstanding. In particular, use of different swirl generators (vanes, twisted inserts) means the role of varying inflow conditions (at the nozzle exit plane x/D = 0) should be studied to resolve its role on the observed convective heat transfer trends. The present paper studies axisymmetric turbulent weakly swirling (S = 0.31) jets (D = 40 mm) impinging onto a heated plate. Parameters varied include inflow conditions and the effects of impingement distance (H/D = 2, 4, and 6). The Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations are used to model the jets using the k-kl-ω turbulence model, which is benchmarked against other models. Three azimuthal () velocity profiles at a Reynolds (Re) number of 24,600 are used at the nozzle exit plane: Uniform (UP), Solid Body Rotation (SBR), and Parabolic Profiles (PP). The start of the wall jet region, designated through elevated levels of turbulent kinetic energy correlates well with the widely observed first peak in Nu distribution. This is however extremely sensitive to the imposition of any swirl, with the application of even weak swirl (S = 0.31) minimally modifying flow dynamics (in the upstream jet region) and leading to recirculation zones stabilized at the impingement plane. This occurs in near-field impingement (H/D) for some inflow conditions (S031-UP), but not others thereby highlighting the significance varied nozzle and swirl generation methods on trends observed in the literature. The imposition of elevated levels of turbulence at the nozzle inflow (x/D = 0) appreciably modifies the heat transfer distribution, particularly in far-field impingement (H/D = 6).



Access Rights

subscription content

Research Themes

Natural and Built Environments

Priority Areas

Engineering, technology and nanotechnology