UVC-assisted photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine by Nd-doped Sb2O3/TiO2 photocatalyst
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
School of Engineering
The photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) in ultra-pure water was investigated by using neodymium (Nd)-doped antimony trioxide (Sb2O3)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst under the UVC irradiations of 254 nm wavelength. The hydrothermal method was used for the fabrication catalyst samples with different ratios of Nd (0%–2%) dopant, and characterised by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) to investigate the crystallinity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided the surface morphologies, Bruanuer-Emmer-Teller (BET) analysis gave the textural properties, and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectroscopy (DRS) was used for the investigation of the optical properties of synthesized catalysts. TEM images of Sb2O3 showed a nanorod-like structure while, in the Nd-doped Sb2O3/TiO2, a small dot-like structure was observed along with the nanorods. The surface area and band gap of 1% Nd-doped Sb2O3/TiO2 were found to be 9.56 m2 g−1 and 3.0 eV respectively. It was observed that the CBZ cannot be degraded in the absence of catalyst under UV light, while photocatalyst 1% Nd-doped Sb2O3/TiO2 at 0.5 g/L of catalyst dose showed the best photocatalytic activity towards CBZ degradation. The main degradation products were identified with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Moreover, the degradation of CBZ followed pseudo first-order kinetics and the rate constant was 0.017 min−1. Quenching tests by the addition of methanol from 100 to 500 mM were carried out to determine the major reactive oxygen species, which showed that [rad]OH radicals was involved in the CBZ degradation. Active species-trapping experiments revealed that ∙O2 − is also responsible for the degradation of CBZ.