Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title





School of Science




Funding information available at:


Chang, Y. S., Hu, K. J., Chiang, C. W., & Lugmayr, A. (2020). Applying mobile augmented reality (AR) to teach interior design students in layout plans: Evaluation of learning effectiveness based on the ARCS model of learning motivation theory. Sensors, 20(1), 105.


In this paper we present a mobile augmented reality (MAR) application supporting teaching activities in interior design. The application supports students in learning interior layout design, interior design symbols, and the effects of different design layout decisions. Utilizing the latest AR technology, users can place 3D models of virtual objects as e.g., chairs or tables on top of a design layout plan and interact with these on their mobile devices. Students can experience alternative design decision in real-time and increases the special perception of interior designs. Our system fully supports the import of interior deployment layouts and the generation of 3D models based on design artefacts based on typical design layout plan design symbols and allows the user to investigate different design alternatives. We applied John Keller’s Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction (ARCS) learning motivation model to validate our solution to examine the students’ willingness and verify the ability of students to improve learning through MAR technology. We compared a sample experimental group of N = 52 test-subjects with a sample of N = 48 candidates in a control group. Learning indicators as learning interest, confidence, satisfaction and effective have been utilized to assess the students’ learning motivation through the use of MAR technology. The learning results have been determined by the independent sample t testing. The significance of the post-test had a p-value < 0.05 difference. The result of the study clearly shows that the reference group utilizing MAR technology as a learning aid show a higher learning effectiveness as the control group. Thus, we conclude that MAR technology does enhance students’ learning ability for interior design and making appropriate design decisions.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.