IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
School of Engineering
Edith Cowan University - Open Access Support Scheme
This paper proposes a novel graph-based approach with automorphic grouping for the modelling, synthesis, and analysis of electric vehicle (EV) networks with charging stations (CSs) that considers the impacts of traffic. The EV charge demands are modeled by a graph where nodes are positioned at potential locations for CSs, and edges represent traffic flow between the nodes. A synchronization protocol is assumed for the network where the system states correspond to the waiting time at each node. These models are then utilized for the placement and sizing of CSs in order to limit vehicle waiting times at all stations below a desirable threshold level. The main idea is to reformulate the CS placement and sizing problems in a control framework. Moreover, a strategy for the deployment of portable charging stations (PCSs) in selected areas is introduced to further improve the quality of solutions by reducing the overshooting of waiting times during peak traffic hours. Further, the inherent symmetry of the graph, described by graph automorphisms, are leveraged to investigate the number and positions of CSs. Detailed simulations are performed for the EV network of Perth Metropolitan in Western Australia to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
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