Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Frontiers in Microbiology


Frontiers Media S.A.


Centre for Marine Ecosystems Research




Austrian Science Fund, FWF: P28781-B21

U.S. Department of Energy, USDOE 1460861, 1232982, 1441717, 1335810

Office of Science, SC: DE-AC02-05CH11231

Simons Foundation, SF: 510023

European Research Council, ERC: RTI2018-101025-B-I00, 268595


Chen, M. L., Becraft, E. D., Pachiadaki, M., Brown, J. M., Jarett, J. K., Gasol, J. M., ... & Woyke, T. (2020). Hiding in plain sight: The globally distributed bacterial candidate phylum PAUC34f. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11, Article 376.


Bacterial candidate phylum PAUC34f was originally discovered in marine sponges and is widely considered to be composed of sponge symbionts. Here, we report 21 single amplified genomes (SAGs) of PAUC34f from a variety of environments, including the dark ocean, lake sediments, and a terrestrial aquifer. The diverse origins of the SAGs and the results of metagenome fragment recruitment suggest that some PAUC34f lineages represent relatively abundant, free-living cells in environments other than sponge microbiomes, including the deep ocean. Both phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns, as well as genome content analyses suggest that PAUC34f associations with hosts evolved independently multiple times, while free-living lineages of PAUC34f are distinct and relatively abundant in a wide range of environments. © Copyright © 2020 Chen, Becraft, Pachiadaki, Brown, Jarett, Gasol, Ravin, Moser, Nunoura, Herndl, Woyke and Stepanauskas.



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