Michael L. Chen
Eric D. Becraft
Julia M. Brown
Jessica K. Jarett
Josep M. Gasol, Edith Cowan UniversityFollow
Nikolai V. Ravin
Duane P. Moser
Gerhard J. Herndl
Frontiers in Microbiology
Frontiers Media S.A.
Centre for Marine Ecosystems Research
Austrian Science Fund, FWF: P28781-B21
U.S. Department of Energy, USDOE 1460861, 1232982, 1441717, 1335810
Office of Science, SC: DE-AC02-05CH11231
Simons Foundation, SF: 510023
European Research Council, ERC: RTI2018-101025-B-I00, 268595
Bacterial candidate phylum PAUC34f was originally discovered in marine sponges and is widely considered to be composed of sponge symbionts. Here, we report 21 single amplified genomes (SAGs) of PAUC34f from a variety of environments, including the dark ocean, lake sediments, and a terrestrial aquifer. The diverse origins of the SAGs and the results of metagenome fragment recruitment suggest that some PAUC34f lineages represent relatively abundant, free-living cells in environments other than sponge microbiomes, including the deep ocean. Both phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns, as well as genome content analyses suggest that PAUC34f associations with hosts evolved independently multiple times, while free-living lineages of PAUC34f are distinct and relatively abundant in a wide range of environments. © Copyright © 2020 Chen, Becraft, Pachiadaki, Brown, Jarett, Gasol, Ravin, Moser, Nunoura, Herndl, Woyke and Stepanauskas.
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