Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Food & Function


NLM (Medline)


School of Medical and Health Sciences




The salary of JMH was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia Senior Research Fellowship (ID: 1116973). The salary of JRL is supported by a National Heart Foundation of Australia Future Leader Fellowship (ID: G1004431). The salary of LCB is supported by an NHMRC of Australia Emerging Leadership Investigator Grant (ID: 1172987) and a National Heart Foundation of Australia Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship (ID: 102498).

Grant Number

NHMRC Number : 1116973, 1172987


This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of: Palmer, C. R., Blekkenhorst, L. C., Lewis, J. R., Ward, N. C., Schultz, C. J., Hodgson, J. M., ... & Sim, M. (2020). Quantifying dietary vitamin K and its link to cardiovascular health: A narrative review. Food & Function, 11(4), 2826-2837.


Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Recent work suggests a link between vitamin K insufficiency and deficiency with vascular calcification, a marker of advanced atherosclerosis. Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble vitamins important for blood coagulation, reducing inflammation, regulating blood calcium metabolism, as well as bone metabolism, all of which may play a role in promoting cardiovascular health. Presently, there is a lack of a comprehensive vitamin K database on individual foods, which are required to accurately calculate vitamin K1 and K2 intake for examination in epidemiological studies. This has likely contributed to ambiguity regarding the recommended daily intake of vitamin K, including whether vitamin K1 and K2 may have separate, partly overlapping functions. This review will discuss the presence of: (i) vitamin K1 and K2 in the diet; (ii) the methods of quantitating vitamin K compounds in foods; and (iii) provide an overview of the evidence for the cardiovascular health benefits of vitamin K in observational and clinical trials.