Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Cogent Enviromental Science


Cogent OA


School of Engineering




Kuranchie, F. A., Angnunavuri, P. N., Attiogbe, F., & Nerquaye-Tetteh, E. N. (2019). Occupational exposure of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) to pump attendants in Ghana: Implications for policy guidance. Cogent Environmental Science, 5(1), 1603418.


Gasoline plays an important role as fuel for engines, but its use is replete with a high probability of adverse health to persons along the distribution chain, especially pump attendants. This study is a systematic review of the literature on gasoline exposure and the specific risks of adverse health on pump attendants by benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BTEX) to instigate policy in Ghana. A careful review of the literature indicates that pump attendants are at risk of developing cancer and non-cancer health hazards. This is particularly so in Ghana due to poor safe work practices and controls at pump stations. Occupational and environmental health and safety is not legislated in Ghana, there is poor awareness of gasoline hazards (especially BTEX) among pump attendants, and poor pump infrastructure controls for BTEX exposure mitigation. Although Ghana has revised the motor gasoline standard to reflect 1%v/v benzene and 35%v/v maximum volatile aromatic compounds, the absence of an exposure standard for BTEX compounds makes it necessary to monitor these compounds. In the absence of a national occupational, health and safety legislation, corporate organizations must establish specific policies that are committed to minimizing exposure to BTEX compounds including personal protection, adequate engineering controls, and tailored management practices.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.