The impact of a three-phase video-assisted debriefing on nursing students' debriefing experiences, perceived stress and facilitators' practices: A mixed methods study
Nurse Education Today
School of Nursing and Midwifery / Centre for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Services Research
This work was supported by the Centre for Development of Teaching and Learning (CDTL), National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore [TEG 2017/2018].
Background: As an integral part of simulation, debriefing helps learners to construct knowledge through reflecting, internalizing, and relating. Video-assisted debriefing (VAD) adds audio-visual captures and reviews to support traditional verbal debriefing (VD), but evidence evaluating its educational effects has been mixed, with limited attention focusing on its structure development. Aim: This study aimed to 1) investigate the effects of a three-phase VAD in enhancing nursing students' debriefing experiences and perceived stress compared to VD and 2) to explore its impact on facilitators' debriefing practices. Methods: A mixed-methods design was adopted. The quantitative phase involved a prospective controlled trial on 145 nursing students from a university in Singapore who were randomized into the intervention cluster (n = 72) and the control cluster (n = 73). The debriefing experience scale (DES), the stress visual analogue scale (Stress VAS), and the debriefing assessment for simulation in healthcare (DASH© student version) were used as outcome measures. For the qualitative component, a purposive sample of eight facilitators evaluated their own debriefing practices using the DASH© instructor version and each completed an open-ended question survey. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Results: Students from the intervention cluster significantly improved their debriefing experiences (p = 0.01), experienced comparable stress, and had better impressions of VAD facilitators' practices (p < 0.001) compared to those in the control cluster. Repeated VAD significantly reduced students' stress (p < 0.001). Students viewed the VAD facilitators as more effective than the VD facilitators. Three categories were derived from the qualitative comments: the act of debriefing, the crux of VAD, and debriefing for success. Conclusion: The three-phase VAD significantly improved nursing students' debriefing experiences without adding extra stress. It also helped to improve facilitators' practices. Future research will benefit from exploring how experts facilitate the three-phase VAD “on the ground” and its effect on learning transfer and cost-effectiveness.