Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Scientific Reports





PubMed ID





School of Medical and Health Sciences / Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research




McBride, J. M., & Nimphius, S. (2020). Biological system energy algorithm reflected in sub-system joint work distribution movement strategies: influence of strength and eccentric loading. Scientific Reports, 10(1), Article 1312.


© 2020, The Author(s). To better understand and define energy algorithms during physical activity as it relates to strength and movement strategy of the hip, knee and ankle, a model of increasing eccentric load was implemented in the current investigation utilizing a countermovement jump and a series of drop jumps from different heights (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 cm). Twenty-one participants were grouped by sex (men, n = 9; women, n = 12) and muscle strength (higher strength, n = 7; moderate strength, n = 7; lower strength, n = 7) as determined by a maximal squat test. Force plates and 3D motion capture were utilized to calculate work for the center of mass (COM) of the whole body and individually for the hip, knee and ankle joints. Statistically significant lower net work of the COM was observed in women and lower strength participants in comparison to men and moderate strength and higher strength participants respectively (p ≤ 0.05). This was primarily due to higher negative to positive work ratios of the COM in women and lower strength participants during all jumps. Furthermore, the COM negative work was primarily dissipated at the knee joint in women and in the lower strength group, particularly during the higher drop jump trials, which are representative of a demanding eccentric load task. A definitive energy algorithm was observed as a reflection of altering joint work strategy in women and lower strength individuals, indicating a possible role in knee joint injury and modulation of such by altering muscular strength.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research Themes

Society and Culture

Priority Areas

Human movement and performance