Establishing the ecological basis for conservation of shallow marine life using reef life survey

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Biological Conservation




School of Science


Funding information found at:


Edgar, G. J., Cooper, A., Baker, S. C., Barker, W., Barrett, N. S., Becerro, M. A., … Stuart-Smith, R. D. (2020). Reef life survey: Establishing the ecological basis for conservation of shallow marine life. Biological Conservation, 252, article 108855.


© 2020 Reef Life Survey (RLS) provides a new model for ecological monitoring through training experienced recreational divers in underwater visual census methods to the level of skilled scientists. Detail produced is similar to that of programs with professional scientific teams, at low cost to allow global coverage. RLS differs from most other citizen science initiatives in its emphasis on rigorous training and data quality rather than open participation, selectively involving the most skilled and committed members. Volunteers participate primarily because they appreciate the close relationship with scientists, other divers, and managers, and see their efforts directly contributing to improved environmental outcomes. RLS works closely with Australian management agencies, scheduling annual events at core monitoring sites associated with 10 inshore marine protected areas Australia-wide. Surveys of 12 offshore Australian Marine Parks (AMPs) are realized through 2–4 week voyages in a sailing catamaran crewed by volunteers. Across the AMP network, RLS surveys have quantified densities of fishes, mobile invertebrates, macroalgae and corals at 350 shallow coral reef sites (180 sites surveyed on two or more occasions), providing an understanding of (i) population changes amongst threatened species including sea snakes, (ii) responses of fish and invertebrate populations following fisheries closures, (iii) ecosystem-wide impacts of marine heat-waves, and (iv) the extent that AMPs spanning the network comprehensively encompass national coral reef biodiversity. This scientist/volunteer/manager collaboration could be greatly expanded globally (presently 3537 sites in 53 countries).



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