Traveling with pets: Constraints, negotiation, and learned helplessness
School of Business and Law
Ministry of Culture and Tourism 2019 Major Graduate Research Support Project of the People's Republic of China
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd Pets have become increasingly important companions for modern families in daily life and during vacations. Yet traveling with pets involves various uncertainties and constraints that can inhibit tourists' participation. Drawing upon the constraint-negotiation model, this two-step, mixed-methods study examines how these constraints may influence pet owners' travel intentions and how such barriers can be overcome. A qualitative investigation was first conducted based on online user-generated content from 71 Chinese bloggers. Thematic analysis informed the development of an extended constraint-negotiation framework featuring learned helplessness. The extended model was then tested using survey data from 615 Chinese pet owners. Findings suggest that while perceived constraints can inhibit traveling with pets through increased learned helplessness, negotiation can reduce helplessness and encourage pet owners’ tourism participation. Implications and limitations are also discussed.