Title

The systematics and phylogenetic position of the troglobitic Australian spider genus Troglodiplura (Araneae: Mygalomorphae), with a new classification for Anamidae

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Invertebrate Systematics

Volume

34

Issue

8

First Page

799

Last Page

822

Publisher

CSIRO Publishing

School

School of Science

Comments

Harvey, M. S., Rix, M. G., Hillyer, M. J., & Huey, J. A. (2020). The systematics and phylogenetic position of the troglobitic Australian spider genus Troglodiplura (Araneae: Mygalomorphae), with a new classification for Anamidae. Invertebrate Systematics, 34(8), 799-822. https://doi.org/10.1071/IS20034

Abstract

© 2020 CSIRO. Compared with araneomorph spiders, relatively few mygalomorph spiders have evolved an obligate existence in subterranean habitats. The trapdoor spider genus Troglodiplura Main, 1969 and its sole named species T. lowryi Main, 1969 is endemic to caves on the Nullarbor Plain of southern Australia, and is one of the world's most troglomorphic mygalomorph spiders. However, its systematic position has proved to be difficult to ascertain, largely due to a lack of preserved adults, with all museum specimens represented only by cuticular fragments, degraded specimens or preserved juveniles. The systematic placement of Troglodiplura has changed since it was first described as a member of the Dipluridae, with later attribution to Nemesiidae and then back to Dipluridae. The most recent hypothesis specifically allied Troglodiplura with the Neotropical subfamily Diplurinae, and therefore was assumed to have no close living relatives in Australia. We obtained mitochondrial sequence data from one specimen of Troglodiplura to test these two competing hypotheses, and found that Troglodiplura is a member of the family Anamidae (which was recently separated from the Nemesiidae). We also reassess the morphology of the cuticular fragments of specimens from several different caves, and hypothesise that along with T. lowryi there are four new troglobitic species, here named T. beirutpakbarai Harvey & Rix, T. challeni Harvey & Rix, T. harrisi Harvey & Rix, and T. samankunani Harvey & Rix, each of which is restricted to a single cave system and therefore severely threatened by changing environmental conditions within the caves. The first descriptions and illustrations of the female spermathecae of Troglodiplura are provided. The family Anamidae is further divided into two subfamilies, with the Anaminae Simon containing Aname L. Koch, 1873, Hesperonatalius Castalanelli, Huey, Hillyer & Harvey, 2017, Kwonkan Main, 1983, Swolnpes Main & Framenau, 2009 and Troglodiplura, and the Teylinae Main including Chenistonia Hogg, 1901, Namea Raven, 1984, Proshermacha Simon, 1909, Teyl Main, 1975 and Teyloides Main, 1985. ZooBank Registration: http://zoobank.org/References/2BE2B429-0998-4AFE-9381-B30BDC391E9C

DOI

10.1071/IS20034

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