Analysis of efficiency enhancement of flat plate solar collector using crystal nano-cellulose (CNC) nanofluids

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments






School of Engineering


Universiti Malaysia Pahang Fundamental Research Grant Scheme Sunway University


Farhana, K., Kadirgama, K., Mohammed, H. A., Ramasamy, D., Samykano, M., & Saidur, R. (2021). Analysis of efficiency enhancement of flat plate solar collector using crystal nano-cellulose (CNC) nanofluids. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 45, article 101049. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2021.101049


© 2021 Elsevier Ltd The upward energy demand, along with the depletion of conventional energy sources, demands improved utilization of renewable energy resources. Among all renewable energy resources, solar energy is the most appropriate alternative to conventional energy sources owing to its inexhaustibility and green property. Solar collectors are devices that convert solar radiation into heat or energy. However, the efficiency of the solar collector is still not adequate. The competent step to enhance the efficiency of the solar collector is to use nanofluids. This study is carried out different phases viz. characterization and stabilization while both qualitative and quantitative methods used to evaluate the stability of nanofluids thermophysical properties of Al2O3 and CNC nanofluids such as thermal conductivity measured at four different temperature using KD2 Pro, viscosity and specific heat determined at similar temperature range by viscometer and differential scanning calorimetry respectively. The experiment is executed with a fixed flow rate and in steady-state conditions under extensive solar radiation. The experimental study has revealed that up to 2.48% and 8.46% efficiency of solar collector enhanced by using 0.5% Al2O3 and 0.5% CNC nanofluids respectively. Moreover, nanofluids show good to moderate stability performance. Besides, the thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased while viscosity is in a decreasing trend with increasing temperature. Nanofluids could enhance the efficiency of a flat-plate solar collector.