Title

Effects of chewing gum on nitric oxide metabolism, markers of cardiovascular health and neurocognitive performance after a nitrate-rich meal

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Journal of the American College of Nutrition

Publisher

Taylor & Francis

School

School of Medical and Health Sciences / Institute for Nutrition Research

RAS ID

32985

Funders

National Health and Medical Research Council National Heart Foundation of Australia Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship

Grant Number

NHMRC Number : 1172987, APP1159914

Comments

Ong, S., Bondonno, N. P., Downey, L. A., Scholey, A., Smith, M. A., Stough, C., ... Bondonno, C. P. (2020). Effects of chewing gum on nitric oxide metabolism, markers of cardiovascular health and neurocognitive performance after a nitrate-rich meal. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2020.1869119

Abstract

© 2021 American College of Nutrition. Objectives: Cardiovascular and neurocognitive responses to chewing gum have been reported, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Chewing gum after a nitrate-rich meal may upregulate the reduction of oral nitrate to nitrite and increase nitric oxide (NO), a molecule important to cardiovascular and neurocognitive health. We aimed to explore effects of chewing gum after a nitrate-rich meal on nitrate metabolism (through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway), endothelial function, blood pressure (BP), neurocognitive performance, mood and anxiety. Methods: Twenty healthy men (n = 6) and women (n = 14) with a mean age of 48 years (range: 23–69) were recruited to a randomized controlled cross-over trial. After consumption of a nitrate-rich meal (180 mg of nitrate), we assessed the acute effects of chewing gum, compared to no gum chewing, on (i) salivary nitrate, nitrite and the nitrate reductase ratio (100 x [nitrite]/([nitrate] + [nitrite]); (ii) plasma nitrite, S-nitrosothiols and other nitroso species (RXNO); (iii) endothelial function (measured by flow mediated dilatation); (iv) BP; (v) neurocognitive performance; (vi) mood; and (vii) anxiety. Results: Consumption of the nitrate-rich meal resulted in a significant increase in markers of nitrate metabolism. A significantly higher peak flow mediated dilatation was observed with chewing compared to no chewing (baseline adjusted mean difference: 1.10%, 95% CI: 0.06, 2.14; p = 0.038) after the nitrate-rich meal. A significant small increase in systolic BP, diastolic BP and heart rate were observed with chewing compared to no chewing after the nitrate-rich meal. The study did not observe increased oral reduction of nitrate to nitrite and NO, or improvements in neurocognitive performance, mood or anxiety with chewing compared to no chewing. Conclusion: Chewing gum after a nitrate-rich meal resulted in an acute improvement in endothelial function and a small increase in BP but did not result in acute effects on neurocognitive function, mood or anxiety.

DOI

10.1080/07315724.2020.1869119

Research Themes

Health

Priority Areas

Exercise, nutrition, lifestyle and other interventions for optimal health across the lifespan

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