Author Identifier

Simone Radavelli-Bagatini

ORCID : 0000-0001-6821-5217

Reindolf Anokye

ORCID : 0000-0002-7669-7057

Nicola P. Bondonno

ORCID : 0000-0001-5905-444X

Marc Sim

ORCID : 0000-0001-5166-0605

Catherine P. Bondonno

ORCID : 0000-0001-8509-439X

Mandy J. Stanley

ORCID : 0000-0002-7958-5181

Craig Harms

ORCID : 0000-0001-7256-2326

Jonathan M. Hodgson

ORCID : 0000-0001-6184-7764

Lauren C. Blekkenhorst

ORCID : 0000-0003-1561-9052

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

European Journal of Nutrition




School of Medical and Health Sciences




Funding information :

National Health and Medical Research Council

Grant Number

NHMRC Number : 1172987, 1116973, 1173952


This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in European Journal of Nutrition. The final authenticated version is available online at:

Radavelli-Bagatini, S., Anokye, R., Bondonno, N. P., Sim, M., Bondonno, C. P., Stanley, M. J., . . . Blekkenhorst, L. C. (2021). Association of habitual intake of fruits and vegetables with depressive symptoms: The AusDiab study. European Journal of Nutrition, 60(7), 3743-3755.



To investigate the relationship of habitual FV intake, different types of FV, and vegetable diversity with depressive symptoms.


Australian men and women (n = 4105) aged > 25 years from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire at baseline, 5 and 12 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the validated 10-item Centre for Epidemiology Studies Short Depression Scale at 12 years. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between the exposures of interest and depressive symptoms using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) across quartiles of FV intake and vegetable diversity. Analyses were multivariable-adjusted for confounding factors.


At 12 years, 425 (10.4%) participants had “any depressive symptoms”. Habitual FV intake was inversely associated with depressive symptoms at 12 years. After adjustment, participants in quartile 2 of FV intake (Q2; median 317 g/day) had a 20% lower odds of having any depressive symptoms (OR [95% CI] 0.80 [0.69, 0.95]) in comparison to those in the lowest quartile of FV intake (Q1; median 223 g/day). Yellow/orange/red and leafy green vegetables were the key vegetable types driving this association. Higher vegetable diversity (4–6 different vegetables/day) was associated with a 24–42% lower odds of having depressive symptoms when compared to < 3 different vegetables/day. The associations remained similar after further adjusting for diet quality.


A FV-rich diet, consisting of a diverse range of vegetables, particularly yellow/orange/red and leafy green vegetables may help to lower depressive symptoms. Promoting such a diet, particularly in men and women with a low FV intake, may have a significant public health impact.