Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School Of Education


Community Services, Education and Social Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Rhonda Oliver


There are three distinct but interrelated parts to this research. The first part measures language learning strategies (LLS) and other individual differences (IDs), as well as the relationship between LLS and the other IDs of year 9 students of Indonesian as a foreign language (L2). The second part measures differences in use of LLS between the control and experimental groups, and then over time. The third part measures the effects of training in LLS on listening comprehension. The study had three main aims. One was to determine the relationship between participants' LLS use and their language learning background, affective factors, learning styles and aptitude. A second was to determine changes to strategy use following training in certain LLS. The third was to find what changes occurred to strategy use following the training.