Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Faculty of Business and Public Management

First Advisor

Professor John Wood


This is a study of the administration of aid by bilateral, multilateral and non-government organisations in Zambia during the period 1990 to 2000. The particular purpose of this study is to compare the aid programs administered by the above organisations to the primary education sector using a case study approach. The study critically analyses how the performance of these organisation is or is not influenced by setting clear objectives, by elaborating planning processes and implementation arrangements. The study uses a matrix table developed through a NUD*IST retrieval reports generated from the data collected from each organisation’s documentation and in-depth interviews with key personnel. The study responds to five key research questions. These are: (a) what are the dominant objectives for each program: (b) how these objectives are structured: (c) what is the nature of the planning process: (d) what are the main channels for executing the programs: and what are the outcomes of the programs. The findings show that the aid organisations in the study have played a major role administering primary education sector programs through the provision of finance and technical assistance, however, most of these organisations, especially the bilateral and multilateral organisations, have not been very effective in delivering value to Zambia’s primary educations sector. Even though bilateral and multilateral aid organisations may have clearly defined objectives and elaborate planning processes, they normally use other agencies to implement their programs. The research shows that this causes loss of focus and control which consequently affects the performance of the programs. Non-government organisations, the third category of aid organisations, on the other hand, are directly involved in the implementation of the programs even though they may have no set objectives or elaborate planning processes. Their approach is to involve the members of the local communities in the selection and planning of specific projects based on local need. These organisations, therefore, register better performance as they maintain more control and are unable to ensure more successful outcomes.