Date of Award


Document Type



Edith Cowan University

Degree Name

Master of Arts


School of Community and Language Studies


Faculty of Community Services, Education and Social Sciences

First Supervisor

Dr Graham McKay


The Grammar is of the Limos Kalinga dialect, referred to by its speakers as Linimos. It . is one of ten Kalinga dialects belonging to the Central Cordilleran subgroup. An estimated 70,000 to 80,000 Kalingas live in the mountainous Kalinga subprovince of Kalinga Apayo in northern Luzon, Republic of the Philippines. Linimos itself is spoken by about 8,000 people living in about ten villages along the lower Saltan river in the municipality of Pinokpok . The Grammar comprises an Introduction, followed by a survey of the basic grammar of the language. This survey includes a chapter on word classes, including the distinction between nouns and verbs, a hazy area in Philippine linguistics. Then the noun phrase is described, with the focus on the complex deictic component of the determiner. The third chapter introduces the structure of the verb, and the focus morphology in particular. The relationship between the focus affixes and transitivity is of particular interest, as a transitivity continuum emerges along the lines of that proposed by Hopper and Thompson (1980) .The next major section of the Grammar describes both verbal and non-verbal . syntax, including subject and topic. Areas chosen for closer attention here are topicalization and identification sentences. The most detailed section of the thesis is the final one on Aspect. The perfectivity/imperfectivity distinction is described first, followed by the complex system of reduplication. There are three major types of reduplication, one of which frequently combines with consonant gemination, which produce aspectual distinctions on verbs. The results are significant for the comparative study of Philippine linguistics, as little has been done on the topic of aspect, particularly that indicated by reduplication. To have the basic outline of the grammar set out simply will be of benefit to those working in the area of translation and literacy, as well as for language learning and, again, for comparative linguistics.