Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Faculty of Computing, Health and Science

First Advisor

Professor William Hutchinson


In 1998, the Department of Defense in the United States released the first of a series of seminal policies on Information Operations (IO). Entitled Joint Publication 3-13, this instruction laid out for the first time, in an unclassified format, how the American military forces could utilise this particular element of power. As a relative newly defined activity, this publication proposed to revolutionise the manner in which warfare, diplomacy, business and a number of other areas are conducted. However, this radical transformation in the United States government with regard to IQ has not occurred over the last decade and a significant gap exists in the capability of the federal bureaucracy to support operations in this arena. While strategic policy and doctrine have been developed and promulgated, in most cases only by the Department of Defense, the actual conduct of IO activities and campaigns across the United States, are normally performed at a much more tactical level. This delta between theory and reality exists because the interagency organisations are often unwilling or unable to make the transformational changes that are needed to best utilise information as an element of power. In this research, the author has developed definitions and models that articulate not only why this delta exists, but also specific strategies for utilising IO in a manner by the United States federal organisations that best optimises the inherent capabilities of this element of power. Specific recommendations are noted below, and will be laid out in greater detail throughout the paper : Develop an Academic Theoretical Construct for IO; Understand that Different Approaches and Processes are Needed to Support IO; Establish an International IO Standards Effort & Meeting the IO Training Needs.