Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences


Faculty of Computing, Health and Science


Midazolam (Hypnovel ®) is the only sedating agent used by paramedics at St John Ambulance Service W.A. in the management of many conditions including seizure activities, antisocial or uncontrollable behaviours, back pain incidents and head injuries. Midazolam, with a rapid absorption, fast onset of action and short duration on neurological activity, has been accepted as a safe and effective agent in prehospital treatment since the late-1990s. Often, if a patient is not complying with treatment or is uncontrollable or aggressive, paramedics are required to sedate the individual. This study primarily examines the use of midazolam for the sedation of unmanageable patients who have sustained a head injury in a prehospital setting. The research investigated whether midazolam (n=49) increases the symptoms of hypotension and hypoxia in patients with head injuries in a prehospital selling. Patients that sustained a head injury but did not receive midazolam (n=47) were used as controls. Physiological parameters including blood pressure, pulse and respiration rates, oxygen saturation, along with Coma Scale and Visual Analogue Scale were placed into SPSS analysis package and Excel t-tests. Further analysis on sub divided cohorts of gender, age and severity of head injury was conducted. Results indicated that although significance differences were present, midazolam did not influence hypotension or hypoxia in head injured patients. However the nature of the head injury along with behavioural issues was the result of increased symptoms of hypotension and hypoxia.