Date of Award


Document Type



Edith Cowan University

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Business and Law

First Supervisor

Dr Ian Patrick Austin

Second Supervisor

Associate Professor Hadrian Djadjadikerta


Asia’s growth in prominence over the last decade is a phenomenon that has seen some governments and international financial institutions defining the twenty-first century as the Asian Century, in which Asia will be the focus of economic growth (Kohli, Sharma & Sood, 2011). The wealth in the major economies of Asia will see an increase in a dominant middle-income group, with strong spending power not only in terms of lifestyle domestically, but also internationally. This group’s quest for the finer things in life will transform the hospitality industry in countries such as Singapore and Macau: both are international metropolises with numerous five-star hotels and resorts. The subsequent expansion in the hospitality industry in these countries has resulted in a tight labour market whereby the respective governments introduced national policies with varying impact on the labour market. This research will investigate how these national policies are translated into Human Resources (HR) policies by HR managers; what the influencing factors in the translation process are; and the difference between the HR policies between Singapore and Macau.

Before 2002, the then Sociedade de Turismo e Diversoes de Macau (STDM) (now Sociedade de Jogos de Macau) was the only organisation in Macau with a casino within its hotel. This changed when the Special Administrative Region (SAR) government liberalised the hospitality and gaming industry to enable the entry of other operators into the market, in the form of Integrated Resorts and Hotels (IR&H) with both gaming and non-gaming facilities. In 2005 Singapore passed legislation that allowed for the establishment of IR&H that encompass Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions (MICE) and a theme park. The relationship between the national employment policy, the constantly changing labour landscape and the political environment that impacts on the national regulatory policies requires HR personnel to keep abreast of the regulatory changes that could be translated into the HR practices of the IR&H. It is these various and varying factors as they relate to Macau and Singapore that will be examined in this study.

The aim of this research, therefore, is to examine and compare the national employment policies of Macau and Singapore to determine how organisations translate these policies into their HR practice.


Paper Location